Affäre Berlin

Review of: Affäre Berlin

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On 01.10.2020
Last modified:01.10.2020

Summary:

Caro, die Regel schwierig. Da die es hltst.

Affäre Berlin

Nach einer Trennung steht dem schlechter verdienenden Ehepartner meist Unterhalt zu. Ist eine Affäre Grund der Trennung, kann dieser Anspruch jedoch. Affäre in Berlin. USA (Berlin-affair). Spionagefilm ( Min.) Der amerikanische Agent Killian soll in Berlin einem Schmuggler- und Spionagering auf die. Affäre in Berlin ist ein US-amerikanischer Spielfilm aus dem Jahr von E. Jack Neuman und Peter Penduik unter der Regie von David Lowell Rich mit.

Affäre Berlin Neueste Beiträge:

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Affäre Berlin

Die mögliche Verquickung von politischen und wirtschaftlichen Interessen im Fall McKinsey wäre nicht die erste Affäre ihrer Art - eine Berliner. "Affäre in Berlin", der Film im Kino - Inhalt, Bilder, Kritik, Trailer, Kinoprogramm sowie Kinostart-Termine und Bewertung bei TV zavoi.eu Nach einer Trennung steht dem schlechter verdienenden Ehepartner meist Unterhalt zu. Ist eine Affäre Grund der Trennung, kann dieser Anspruch jedoch. Affäre Berlin

Affäre Berlin Spis treści Video

The Berlin Affair Trailer 1985

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Photos Add Image. Pete Killian Fritz Weaver Joe Mallicent Brian Kelly Paul Strand Claude Dauphin Languin Pascale Petit Wendi Christian Roberts Albert Derren Nesbitt Galt Kathie Browne Andrea Marian Collier Berlin is an important centre in the European and German film industry.

In addition around 20 news agencies, more than 90 regional daily newspapers and their websites, as well as the Berlin offices of more than 22 national publications such as Der Spiegel , and Die Zeit re-enforce the capital's position as Germany's epicenter for influential debate.

Therefore, many international journalists, bloggers and writers live and work in the city. Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations.

Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets Berliner Morgenpost , Berliner Zeitung , Der Tagesspiegel , and three major tabloids , as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt , Neues Deutschland , and Die Tageszeitung.

Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter , Springer , the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe publishing group , Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin.

Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. According to Mercer , Berlin ranked number 13 in the Quality of living city ranking in According to Monocle , Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world.

Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility. In , around 7, mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service.

Since , a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries.

Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea.

The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. It also runs an SXF airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Vienna , Prague , Zürich , Warsaw , Budapest and Amsterdam.

Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. The city has more than 10 stations [] that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, being Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin the biggest station.

Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20 th century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served.

Since , the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20 th century traits, such as the U1.

Berlin has two commercial international airports. Both airports together handled In , 67 airlines served destinations in 50 countries from Berlin.

Schönefeld serves as an important destination for airlines like Germania , easyJet and Ryanair. The new Berlin Brandenburg Airport BER began construction in , with the intention of replacing the existing airports as the single commercial airport of Berlin.

Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system. From until Berlin had an extensive pneumatic postal network , which at its peak in , totalled kilometres length.

After the system was split in two separated networks. The West Berlin system in operation and open for public use until , and for government use until The East Berlin system which inherited the Hauptelegraphenamt , the central hub of the system, was in operation until Both offer electric power and natural gas supply.

Some of the city's electric energy is imported from nearby power plants in southern Brandenburg. As of [update] the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg.

All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. In the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed.

The Berlin kV electric line is the backbone of the city's energy grid. Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology.

Rudolf Virchow was the founder of cellular pathology, while Robert Koch developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis.

The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer.

The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. This system transmits compressed digital audio , digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream.

Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; hotspots indoor and outdoor access points are installed.

The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems.

Focal points are photonic components and systems , fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission.

Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well. As of [update] , Berlin had schools, teaching , children in 13, classes and 56, trainees in businesses and elsewhere.

After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule a comprehensive school or Gymnasium college preparatory school.

Berlin has a special bilingual school program in the Europaschule , in which children are taught the curriculum in German and a foreign language, starting in primary school and continuing in high school.

Kennedy School , a bilingual German—American public school in Zehlendorf , is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community.

The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centres of higher education and research in Germany and Europe.

Historically, 67 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities. The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges Hochschulen , offering a wide range of disciplines.

The three largest universities combined have approximately , enrolled students. The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society , the Leibniz Association , the Helmholtz Association , and the Max Planck Society , which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities.

One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof , with more than 1, affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions.

In addition to the university-affiliated libraries, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library. There are also 86 public libraries in the city.

Berlin is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Young people, international artists and entrepreneurs continued to settle in the city and made Berlin a popular entertainment center in the world.

The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree.

As of [update] Berlin is home to museums and more than art galleries. Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten.

Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. The Gemäldegalerie Painting Gallery focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe specializes in 20th-century European painting.

The Hamburger Bahnhof , in Moabit , exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art.

The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium.

The Bauhaus Archive is a museum of 20th century design from the famous Bauhaus school. The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history.

The Museum für Naturkunde Berlin's natural history museum exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world a Giraffatitan skeleton.

A well-preserved specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well. The Brücke Museum features one of the largest collection of works by artist of the early 20th-century expressionist movement.

The site of Checkpoint Charlie , one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved. A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East.

The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum. The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art.

Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture. Berlin's nightlife has been celebrated as one of the most diverse and vibrant of its kind.

Throughout the s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe , made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in , many historic buildings in Mitte, the former city centre of East Berlin, were illegally occupied and re-built by young squatters and became a fertile ground for underground and counterculture gatherings.

The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties. Clubs are not required to close at a fixed time during the weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or even all weekend.

The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof terrace that allows partying at night. Several venues have become a popular stage for the Neo-Burlesque scene.

Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene , started in By the s, gays and lesbians had an unprecedented visibility.

The annual Berlin International Film Festival Berlinale with around , admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world.

Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress.

The annual Berlin Festival focuses on indie rock, electronic music and synthpop and is part of the International Berlin Music Week. The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centred, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city.

Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages. The Volksbühne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz was built in —14, though the company had been founded in The Berliner Ensemble , famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht , was established in The Schaubühne was founded in and moved to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm in With a seating capacity of 1, and a stage floor of 2, square metres 30, square feet , the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin Mitte is the largest show palace in Europe.

Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is also at Unter den Linden.

The Deutsche Oper opened in in Charlottenburg. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens built in Contemporary dance can be seen at the Radialsystem V.

The Tempodrom is host to concerts and circus inspired entertainment. It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. The Admiralspalast in Mitte has a vibrant program of variety and music events.

There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world; [] it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan.

Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences.

In , the New York Times described Berlin as "arguably the world capital of underground electronic music ". The cuisine and culinary offerings of Berlin vary greatly.

Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included in the Michelin Guide of , which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants having this distinction in Germany.

Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes.

Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst which gained popularity with post-war construction workers rebuilding the city , Buletten and the Berliner doughnut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen.

Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city. Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel , which have become common fast food staples.

The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world.

Zoologischer Garten Berlin , the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in It is the most visited zoo in Europe and presents the most diverse range of species in the world.

With an area of 43 hectares acres and around 22, different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world.

The Volkspark in Friedrichshain , which opened in , is the oldest park in the city, with monuments, a summer outdoor cinema and several sports areas.

Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin. The city was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser , until The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks.

Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. In around , Berliners were registered in one of the more than 2, sport and fitness clubs.

Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the Summer Olympics. Berliners would achieve seven gold, twelve silver and three bronze medals. Several professional clubs representing the most important spectator team sports in Germany have their base in Berlin.

Other professional team sport clubs include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital of Germany.

For other uses, see Berlin disambiguation. Capital and largest city of Germany. Capital city and state in Germany. Capital city and state.

Coat of arms. Main article: History of Berlin. Further information: Timeline of Berlin. The rebuilt Berlin Palace will open in late Berlin Brandenburg Airport is scheduled to open on October 31, Main article: Geography of Berlin.

Main article: Architecture in Berlin. Further information: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest buildings in Berlin. Main article: Demographics of Berlin.

Main articles: German language and Berlinerisch dialect. Main article: Religion in Berlin. Hedwig's Cathedral.

Main articles: Politics of Berlin and Berlin Police. Main article: Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Main article: Economy of Berlin. Main article: List of sights in Berlin.

Berlin Fashion Week. IFA is the world's leading trade show for consumer electronics. For a more comprehensive list, see List of films set in Berlin.

Main article: Media in Berlin. Main article: Transport in Berlin. Main article: Cycling in Berlin. Main article: Rohrpost in Berlin. Main article: Radio and telecommunication in Berlin.

Main article: Education in Berlin. Main article: Universities and research institutions in Berlin. Main article: Culture in Berlin. For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums and galleries in Berlin.

Main article: Music in Berlin. See also: German cuisine. The Currywurst Museum. A plate of Currywurst. Invented in Berlin, currywurst is an icon of German popular culture and cuisine.

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Instead, the taxis are beige and have a sign on the top. You can rent a car and drive yourself, but Berlin can be a confusing city for the newcomer.

Berliners themselves prefer to bike, and you can do that also. It's a safe and environmental way to explore the city. While East and West Berlin have been reunited for a while now, you can still visit the Berlin Wall that once kept them apart.

The Eastern Center is a great place to see old-style architecture, and the Eastern suburbs have a lot of interesting character. They are also the location of some of the best hotels and restaurants in the city.

If you time your cheap flight to Berlin correctly, you will be able to see the Berlin Love parade. People from all over Berlin participate by dressing wildly and marching to techno music.

If you saved money on your airfare to Berlin, you'll probably want to do some shopping. There are a variety of places you can go to find great souvenirs.

Consider Potsdamer Platz Arkaden in the heart of Berlin. There are more than stores there. Friedrichstrasse is the place for high-end and artsy shopping.

In addition to that, Berlin has flea markets and second-hand shops as well. Like most big cities, Berlin has a wide range of restaurants to choose from.

Traditional German, American, African, and Asian restaurants abound in the city. Marjellchen is a romantic restaurant featuring German cuisine.

Saigon and More has been said to serve the best Vietnamese fare. After dinner, there is no better nightlife in the world than in Berlin. From theater to nightclubs where people party until the next morning, there is something for everyone in Berlin.

Book your flight to Berlin today. Flights Vacation Rentals Restaurants Things to do. Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers.

Cheap Flights to Berlin - Berlin Flights. In the s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union.

Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. In December , there were , registered residents of foreign nationality and another , German citizens with a "migration background" Migrationshintergrund, MH , [2] meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after Foreign residents of Berlin originate from about different countries.

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin. It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

German is one of 24 languages of the European Union, [] and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. Berlinerisch or Berlinisch is not a dialect linguistically, but has features of Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects.

It is spoken in Berlin and the surrounding metropolitan area. It originates from a Mark Brandenburgish variant. The dialect is now seen more as a sociolect , largely through increased immigration and trends among the educated population to speak standard German in everyday life.

Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish and Serbo-Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities.

According to the census, approximately 37 percent of the population reported being members of a legally-recognized church or religious organization.

The rest either did not belong to such an organization, or there was no information available about them. According to the EKBO, their membership accounted for It does not keep records of members of other religious organizations which may collect their own church tax, in this way.

In , approximately , Muslims were reported by the Office of Statistics to be members of Mosques and Islamic religious organizations in Berlin, [] while in , the newspaper Der Tagesspiegel estimated that about , Muslims observed Ramadan in Berlin.

About 0. Of the estimated population of 30,—45, Jewish residents, [] approximately 12, are registered members of religious organizations.

Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. The faithful of the different religions and denominations maintain many places of worship in Berlin.

Berlin has more than 80 mosques, [] ten synagogues, [] and two Buddhist temples. Since reunification on 3 October , Berlin has been one of the three city states in Germany among the present 16 states of Germany.

The House of Representatives Abgeordnetenhaus functions as the city and state parliament, which has seats.

Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin Senat von Berlin. The Senate consists of the Governing Mayor Regierender Bürgermeister and up to ten senators holding ministerial positions, two of them holding the title of "Mayor" Bürgermeister as deputy to the Governing Mayor.

Since this office has been held by Michael Müller of the Social Democrats. Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs or districts Bezirke.

Each borough has a number of subdistricts or neighborhoods Ortsteile , which have roots in much older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October These subdistricts became urbanized and incorporated into the city later on.

Many residents strongly identify with their neighbourhoods, colloquially called Kiez. At present, Berlin consists of 96 subdistricts, which are commonly made up of several smaller residential areas or quarters.

Each borough is governed by a borough council Bezirksamt consisting of five councilors Bezirksstadträte including the borough's mayor Bezirksbürgermeister.

The council is elected by the borough assembly Bezirksverordnetenversammlung. However, the individual boroughs are not independent municipalities, but subordinate to the Senate of Berlin.

The borough's mayors make up the council of mayors Rat der Bürgermeister , which is led by the city's Governing Mayor and advises the Senate.

The neighborhoods have no local government bodies. Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities.

East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished. West Berlin's partnerships had previously been restricted to the borough level.

During the Cold War era, the partnerships had reflected the different power blocs, with West Berlin partnering with capitals in the Western World, and East Berlin mostly partnering with cities from the Warsaw Pact and its allies.

Berlin's official sister cities are: []. Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established.

For example, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has a partnership with the Israeli city of Kiryat Yam. Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The President of Germany , whose functions are mainly ceremonial under the German constitution , has their official residence in Bellevue Palace.

Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag , the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in The Bundesrat "federal council", performing the function of an upper house is the representation of the federal states Bundesländer of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House of Lords.

The Federal Chancellery building , seat of the Chancellor of Germany. The Reichstag , seat of the Bundestag. Schloss Bellevue , seat of the President of Germany.

Prussian House of Lords , the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany. The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in , however some ministries as well as some minor departments stayed in the federal city Bonn , the former capital of West Germany.

Discussions about moving the remaining ministries and departments to Berlin continue. Berlin hosts in total foreign embassies [] as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations.

Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant centre of German and European affairs.

Frequent official visits, and diplomatic consultations among governmental representatives and national leaders are common in contemporary Berlin.

In , the total labour force in Berlin was 1. The unemployment rate reached a year low in November and stood at Around , jobs were added in this period.

Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering.

Research and development have economic significance for the city. Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city.

For several years Berlin has been recognized as a major center of business founders. As of , the three largest banks headquartered in the capital were Deutsche Kreditbank , Landesbank Berlin and Berlin Hyp.

Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. American electric car manufacturer Tesla is building its first European Gigacatory just outside of the city in Grünheide Mark.

The Pharmaceuticals division of Bayer [] and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies in the city. Berlin had hotels with , beds in According to figures from the International Congress and Convention Association in Berlin became the leading organizer of conferences in the world hosting international meetings.

Its main exhibition area covers more than , square metres 1,, square feet. The creative arts and entertainment business is an important part of Berlin's economy.

In , around 30, creative companies operated in the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan region, predominantly SMEs.

Generating a revenue of Berlin is an important centre in the European and German film industry. In addition around 20 news agencies, more than 90 regional daily newspapers and their websites, as well as the Berlin offices of more than 22 national publications such as Der Spiegel , and Die Zeit re-enforce the capital's position as Germany's epicenter for influential debate.

Therefore, many international journalists, bloggers and writers live and work in the city. Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations.

Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets Berliner Morgenpost , Berliner Zeitung , Der Tagesspiegel , and three major tabloids , as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt , Neues Deutschland , and Die Tageszeitung.

Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter , Springer , the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe publishing group , Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin.

Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. According to Mercer , Berlin ranked number 13 in the Quality of living city ranking in According to Monocle , Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world.

Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility. In , around 7, mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service.

Since , a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries.

Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea.

The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. It also runs an SXF airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Vienna , Prague , Zürich , Warsaw , Budapest and Amsterdam.

Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. The city has more than 10 stations [] that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, being Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin the biggest station.

Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20 th century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served.

Since , the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20 th century traits, such as the U1. Berlin has two commercial international airports.

Both airports together handled In , 67 airlines served destinations in 50 countries from Berlin. Schönefeld serves as an important destination for airlines like Germania , easyJet and Ryanair.

The new Berlin Brandenburg Airport BER began construction in , with the intention of replacing the existing airports as the single commercial airport of Berlin.

Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system. From until Berlin had an extensive pneumatic postal network , which at its peak in , totalled kilometres length.

After the system was split in two separated networks. The West Berlin system in operation and open for public use until , and for government use until The East Berlin system which inherited the Hauptelegraphenamt , the central hub of the system, was in operation until Both offer electric power and natural gas supply.

Some of the city's electric energy is imported from nearby power plants in southern Brandenburg. As of [update] the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg.

All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. In the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed.

The Berlin kV electric line is the backbone of the city's energy grid. Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology.

Rudolf Virchow was the founder of cellular pathology, while Robert Koch developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis.

The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer.

The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. This system transmits compressed digital audio , digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream.

Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; hotspots indoor and outdoor access points are installed.

The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems.

Focal points are photonic components and systems , fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission. Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well.

As of [update] , Berlin had schools, teaching , children in 13, classes and 56, trainees in businesses and elsewhere. After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule a comprehensive school or Gymnasium college preparatory school.

Berlin has a special bilingual school program in the Europaschule , in which children are taught the curriculum in German and a foreign language, starting in primary school and continuing in high school.

Kennedy School , a bilingual German—American public school in Zehlendorf , is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community.

The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centres of higher education and research in Germany and Europe. Historically, 67 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities.

The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges Hochschulen , offering a wide range of disciplines.

The three largest universities combined have approximately , enrolled students. The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society , the Leibniz Association , the Helmholtz Association , and the Max Planck Society , which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities.

One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof , with more than 1, affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions.

In addition to the university-affiliated libraries, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library. There are also 86 public libraries in the city.

Berlin is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Young people, international artists and entrepreneurs continued to settle in the city and made Berlin a popular entertainment center in the world.

The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree.

As of [update] Berlin is home to museums and more than art galleries. Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten. Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city.

The Gemäldegalerie Painting Gallery focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe specializes in 20th-century European painting.

The Hamburger Bahnhof , in Moabit , exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium.

The Bauhaus Archive is a museum of 20th century design from the famous Bauhaus school. The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history.

The Museum für Naturkunde Berlin's natural history museum exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world a Giraffatitan skeleton.

A well-preserved specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well. The Brücke Museum features one of the largest collection of works by artist of the early 20th-century expressionist movement.

The site of Checkpoint Charlie , one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved. A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East.

The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum. The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art. Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture.

Berlin's nightlife has been celebrated as one of the most diverse and vibrant of its kind. Throughout the s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe , made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in , many historic buildings in Mitte, the former city centre of East Berlin, were illegally occupied and re-built by young squatters and became a fertile ground for underground and counterculture gatherings.

The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties. Clubs are not required to close at a fixed time during the weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or even all weekend.

The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof terrace that allows partying at night. Several venues have become a popular stage for the Neo-Burlesque scene.

Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement.

Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene , started in By the s, gays and lesbians had an unprecedented visibility.

The annual Berlin International Film Festival Berlinale with around , admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world.

Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress. The annual Berlin Festival focuses on indie rock, electronic music and synthpop and is part of the International Berlin Music Week.

The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centred, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city.

Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages. The Volksbühne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz was built in —14, though the company had been founded in The Berliner Ensemble , famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht , was established in The Schaubühne was founded in and moved to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm in With a seating capacity of 1, and a stage floor of 2, square metres 30, square feet , the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin Mitte is the largest show palace in Europe.

Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is also at Unter den Linden.

The Deutsche Oper opened in in Charlottenburg. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens built in Contemporary dance can be seen at the Radialsystem V.

The Tempodrom is host to concerts and circus inspired entertainment. It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience.

The Admiralspalast in Mitte has a vibrant program of variety and music events. There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin.

The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world; [] it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan.

Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences.

In , the New York Times described Berlin as "arguably the world capital of underground electronic music ".

The cuisine and culinary offerings of Berlin vary greatly. Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included in the Michelin Guide of , which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants having this distinction in Germany.

Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes.

Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst which gained popularity with post-war construction workers rebuilding the city , Buletten and the Berliner doughnut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen.

Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city. Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel , which have become common fast food staples.

The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world.

Zoologischer Garten Berlin , the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in It is the most visited zoo in Europe and presents the most diverse range of species in the world.

With an area of 43 hectares acres and around 22, different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world.

The Volkspark in Friedrichshain , which opened in , is the oldest park in the city, with monuments, a summer outdoor cinema and several sports areas.

Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin. The city was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser , until The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks.

Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. In around , Berliners were registered in one of the more than 2, sport and fitness clubs.

Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the Summer Olympics. Berliners would achieve seven gold, twelve silver and three bronze medals.

Several professional clubs representing the most important spectator team sports in Germany have their base in Berlin. Other professional team sport clubs include:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital of Germany. For other uses, see Berlin disambiguation. Capital and largest city of Germany.

Capital city and state in Germany. Capital city and state. Coat of arms. Main article: History of Berlin. Further information: Timeline of Berlin.

The rebuilt Berlin Palace will open in late Berlin Brandenburg Airport is scheduled to open on October 31, Main article: Geography of Berlin.

Main article: Architecture in Berlin. Further information: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest buildings in Berlin. Main article: Demographics of Berlin.

Main articles: German language and Berlinerisch dialect. Main article: Religion in Berlin. Hedwig's Cathedral. Main articles: Politics of Berlin and Berlin Police.

Main article: Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.

Main article: Economy of Berlin. Main article: List of sights in Berlin. Berlin Fashion Week. IFA is the world's leading trade show for consumer electronics.

For a more comprehensive list, see List of films set in Berlin. Main article: Media in Berlin. Main article: Transport in Berlin. Main article: Cycling in Berlin.

Main article: Rohrpost in Berlin. Main article: Radio and telecommunication in Berlin. Main article: Education in Berlin. Main article: Universities and research institutions in Berlin.

Main article: Culture in Berlin. For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums and galleries in Berlin.

Main article: Music in Berlin. See also: German cuisine. The Currywurst Museum. A plate of Currywurst.

Invented in Berlin, currywurst is an icon of German popular culture and cuisine. Main article: Sport in Berlin.

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